Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
Display Method:
Special Column: Advanced Low-Light-Level Technology
2022, 44(8): 763-763.  
Abstract HTML(5) PDF(11)
Abstract:
Performance Comparison Between Super Second Generation and Third Generation Image Intensifiers
LI Xiaofeng, HE Yanbin, CHANG Le, WANG Guangfan, XU Chuanping
2022, 44(8): 764-777.  
Abstract HTML(8) PDF(39)
Abstract:
Super-second-generation and third-generation image intensifiers are two types of image intensifiers that use different technologies. Super-second-generation image intensifiers employ a Na2KSb(Cs) photocathode, whereas third-generation image intensifiers employ a GaAs photocathode. Third-generation image intensifiers employ higher cathode voltages than those employed by super-second-generation image intensifiers. In addition, third-generation image intensifiers employ an antireflection coating between the glass input window and GaAs photocathode; however, this is not employed in super second-generation image intensifiers. Furthermore, third-generation image intensifiers employ ion barriers on their MCP(microchannel plate), whereas super-second-generation image intensifiers do not. In terms of limiting resolution, despite the small initial electron velocity, narrow exit angle distribution, and high cathode voltage of the third-generation image intensifiers, the limiting resolutions of the two types of image intensifiers are the same; the advantages of the GaAs photocathode of the third-generation image intensifiers have not been introduced under the existing limiting resolution level. In terms of signal-to-noise ratio, the GaAs photocathode has a higher cathode sensitivity, normally more than twice that of the super-second-generation image intensifier. Thus, theoretically, the third-generation image intensifiers have signal-to-noise ratios that are 1.4 times those of the super-second-generation image intensifiers. However, the two types of image intensifiers are basically the same owing to the influence of higher cathode voltage and ion barrier transmittance and the advantage of not introducing the high sensitivity of the GaAs photocathode of the third-generation image intensifiers. In terms of gain, although the third-generation image intensifiers have higher cathode sensitivity and cathode voltage, the super-second-generation image intensifiers compensate for the shortcomings of cathode sensitivity and cathode voltage by increasing the working voltage of the microchannel plate. Therefore, in terms of the existing image intensifier gain, the gains of the two types of image intensifiers are identical. In terms of equivalent background illumination(EBI), owing to the higher sensitivity of the GaAs photocathode, the third-generation image intensifiers can obtain lower equivalent background illumination under the same photocathode dark current. Therefore, the third-generation image intensifiers have higher initial contrast than that of the super-second-generation image intensifiers. The higher the initial contrast of the input image, the higher the contrast of the output image. In terms of halo, because the photocathode of the third-generation image intensifiers has high sensitivity and an ion barrier film, theoretically, the third-generation image intensifiers have higher halo brightness than that of the super-second-generation image intensifiers. However, in actual situation, the halo brightness levels of the two types of image intensifiers are basically the same. In terms of stray light, the GaAs photocathode has an antireflection coating; thus, the stray light is lower than that of the super-second-generation image intensifier, so the imaging of the third-generation image intensifier is clearer and the sense of gradation is better. In terms of spectral response beyond the long-wavelength threshold, because the spectral responses beyond the long-wavelength threshold of the super-second-generation image intensifiers are higher than those of the third-generation image intensifiers, the super-second-generation image intensifiers have better imaging performance than that of the third-generation image intensifier under supplementary illumination using the near-infrared waveband. For example, without the presence of any light, the super-second-generation image intensifiers can obtain better images at a supplementary illumination of 980 nm wavelength, whereas the third-generation image intensifiers cannot. In terms of the resolution of low illumination, the super-second- and third-generation image intensifiers with similar performance parameters have the same low luminance resolution. It should be noted that this conclusion was obtained under the test conditions of a standard A light source. When the actual environmental emission spectrum distribution is different from that of a standard illuminant A, the low illumination resolutions of the two types of image intensifiers are different. Photocathode sensitivity is a parameter of the photocathode and not of the image intensifier. Thus, the performances of the two types of image intensifiers cannot be compared in terms of photocathode sensitivity. The difference between the super-second and third-generations cannot be understood using the meaning of "generation; " their differences do not lie in the meaning of "generation."
Progress in Research on Semiconductor Photocathodes
ZHANG Yijun
2022, 44(8): 778-791.  
Abstract HTML(3) PDF(23)
Abstract:
Semiconductor photocathodes with high quantum efficiency and low dark current are widely used in various vacuum photoelectric detection and imaging devices, such as photomultiplier tubes and image intensifiers, promoting the development of ultrafast detection and imaging technology for extremely weak light. Vacuum electron sources capable of producing high-quality electron beams are used in accelerator photoinjectors, electron microscopes, and other scientific equipment. First, this review introduces the classification of semiconductor photocathodes and their applications in the fields of vacuum photoelectric detection and imaging and vacuum electron sources. Then, preparation techniques for three types of typical semiconductor photocathodes, namely, alkali telluride, alkali antimonide, and GaAs photocathodes, are summarized. Subsequently, applications of new technologies, such as micro-nano structures, low-dimensional materials, and single-crystal epitaxy, in the development of semiconductor photocathodes are introduced. Finally, the technical development of the semiconductor photocathodes is discussed.
Design of Charge-Sensitive Amplifiers for Electron Multipliers
ZHANG Binting, YAN Baojun, LIU Shulin, WEN Kaile, WANG Yuman, GU Jianyu, YAO Wenjing
2022, 44(8): 792-797.  
Abstract HTML(3) PDF(6)
Abstract:
A new type of charge-sensitive three-stage amplifier was developed. The circuit design mainly adopted an ADA4817 high-speed and low-noise integrated operational amplifier chip. The three-stage amplifier had low noise, good stability, a simple circuit structure, high cost performance, and ease of maintenance. It could amplify signals with rise time in nanoseconds without distortion, and the output signal quality of the amplifier was excellent. It was used with a multi-channel analyzer MCA8000D to read a single photoelectron spectrum of a microchannel plate (MCP) assembly or a single channel electron multiplier (CEM). The test results show that the custom-made amplifier fully satisfied the pulse performance test requirements of MCP or CEM detectors, and its technical indicators were close to those of imported A250 amplifiers.
Characteristics of Photovoltage Spectrum on Surfaces of Gallium Nitride Photocathode Film Materials
GAO Jiansen, LIU Jian
2022, 44(8): 798-803.  
Abstract HTML(0) PDF(5)
Abstract:
In this study, we epitaxially grew a multilayer structure of gallium nitride (GaN) photocathode film material on a sapphire substrate and conducted a surface photovoltage test. The effects of doping type, thickness, and doping method on the surface photovoltage of the gallium nitride material were compared and analyzed, and the mechanism of surface photovoltage generation of the multi-layered gallium nitride material was determined. A surface photovoltage test was performed on uniformly doped and delta-doped gallium nitride photocathode thin film materials using sub-band-gap laser. Experimental data shows that better growth quality was achieved using δ-doping than that achieved using uniform doping; however, δ-doping increased the density of defect states in the (Ev+0.65)–(Ev+1.07) eV energy levels.
Research on Brightness Gain Temperature Characteristics of Super Gen. II Low-Light-Level Image Intensifier Using High-voltage DC Power Supply
LI Yaqing, ZHOU Shengtao, WANG Guangfan, CHU Zhujun, DU Peide, ZHU Wenjin, LI Xiaolu, ZUO Jianing, ZHU Shicong
2022, 44(8): 804-810.  
Abstract HTML(1) PDF(8)
Abstract:
Aiming at the problem that the brightness gains of super Gen. Ⅱ image intensifiers, equipped with high-voltage DC power supplies, substantially decrease at high temperatures, according to the theoretical analysis, this study developed high and low temperature test platforms to study the temperature characteristics of an image intensifier with a high-voltage DC power supply, an image intensifier tube, and a single high-voltage DC power supply. The experimental results show that the brightness gain of this type of image intensifier at a high temperature (55℃) decreased by approximately 65% than that at a low temperature (-55℃). However, on supplying constant cathode, MCP, and anode voltages to the image intensifier tube, the brightness gain decreased by 20%, which was mainly due to the decrease in the cathode sensitivity and luminous efficiency of the fluorescent screen with the increase in temperature. Compared with low temperature (-55℃), t he cathode voltage of the high-voltage DC power supply was reduced by approximately 40 V at high temperature (55℃), whereas the MCP and anode voltages were reduced by approximately 18 and 100 V, respectively. These three factors accelerated the attenuation of the brightness gain of the image intensifier at high temperatures. Therefore, compensating the cathode, MCP, and anode voltages using software and/or hardware to the power supply can be an effective method to improve the brightness gain consistency of super Gen. Ⅱ image intensifiers with a high-voltage DC power supply at various temperatures.
Comparison and Evaluation Method and System of Imaging Effect of Field-Low-Light-Level Image Intensifiers
HAN Zhenghao, CHU Zhujun, LIU Xuan, JIN Weiqi, WANG Xia, LI Li, QIU Su
2022, 44(8): 811-817.  
Abstract HTML(5) PDF(10)
Abstract:
Image intensifiers, which are core imaging devices for low-light-level night-vision techniques, are used worldwide as advanced military night-vision devices. A method of directly comparing and analyzing the final output image characteristics of different image intensifiers is the most intuitive routine for assessing the image quality of image intensifiers. However, because image intensifiers are direct-view imaging devices, they face many challenges, such as field experimental set-up, synchronous image capturing, and adaption of image intensifiers with different types. Therefore, an image quality assessment method and image quality comparison system for image intensifiers were proposed. Dual-channel image intensifiers, a low-light-level CMOS and a laser rangefinder were integrated into the system; the main optical axis of each device was parallel. The images of the image intensifiers and CMOS were synchronously observed and captured. The system is compatible with different types of image intensifiers and power supply modes. The distance between the target and the system was also measured. Moreover, several no-reference image-quality-assessment metrics were integrated into the software to assist the observer in assessing the image quality of different image intensifiers. The actual field test results show that the proposed system is convenient and practical for comparing the quality of different imaging devices, and can facilitate optimization of the manufacture of image intensifiers, thereby promoting the development of low-light-level night-vision technology.
Theoretical Model of Funnel Microchannel Plate Fabricated through Dry Etching
QIU Xiangbiao, MIN Xinjie, JIN Ge, SUN Jiangning, WANG Jian, CONG Xiaoqing, ZHANG Zhengjun, XU Zhao, PAN Kai, REN Ling, ZHANG Zhen, QIAO Fangjian, NIE Huijun, HUANG Guorui, CHEN Xiaoqian, HU Zexun, LIN Yanjian, LIU Dan, YANG Xiaoming
2022, 44(8): 818-823.  
Abstract HTML(1) PDF(7)
Abstract:
The open area ratio is an important performance index for microchannel plates(MCPs). The detection efficiency and noise factor of MCPs can be significantly improved by expanding the entrance of the pores, which has potential application in the military and civil fields, such as low-light-level night-vision devices and particle detectors. MCPs with funneled pores prepared through wet etching are difficult to apply on a mass scale because of problems such as poor consistency of the process and difficulty in conforming funnel size caused by selective corrosion. A dry-etching method for MCP flaring was proposed for the first time. The principle and feasibility of dry etching for MCP flaring are described in this paper. A theoretical model was established to investigate the effects of dry etching process parameters, such as etching angle and etching time, on the MCP opening area ratio, etching depth in the channel, etching taper on the channel wall, and other performance parameters. The appropriate range of the process parameters was calculated theoretically, which provides a foundation for experimental research.
Influence of Chamber Gas Composition on the Stability of GaAs Photocathode
WU Haoyu, GUO Xin, GAN Linyu, CHEN Peng, XU Zhifeng, LIU Hui, JIAO Gangcheng, ZHU Yufeng, REN Yutian
2022, 44(8): 824-827.  
Abstract HTML(0) PDF(5)
Abstract:
GaAs photocathodes are widely used in low-light night vision owing to their high quantum efficiency and adjustable spectra. In particular, they are distinguished from multi-alkali photocathodes based on their high integration sensitivity. The negative electron affinity of GaAs photocathodes is determined through Cs, and O activation is achieved. However, after activation, the maintenance of negative electron affinity is affected by many factors, such as the activation source, activation method, and gas atmosphere. To explore the factors that affect the stability of GaAs photocathodes in ultra-high vacuum systems, an activation and stability experiment was performed with a GaAs photocathode. The activation photocurrent curve and gas composition in a chamber were monitored. The experimental results show that in a high-vacuum system with vacuum degree less than 1×10−6 Pa, the stability of the GaAs photocathode was not directly affected by the degree of vacuum but by the gas composition in the chamber. Among these, H2O had the greatest impact on stability. The increase in the H2O partial pressure in the vacuum system rapidly destroyed the Cs and O activation layers of the GaAs photocathode and dramatically reduced the photoemission.
Materials & Devices
Research Progress of Dislocation Density Reduction in MBE HgCdTe on Alternative Substrates
YANG Jin, LI Yanhui, YANG Chunzhang, QIN Gang, LI Junbin, LEI Wen, KONG Jincheng, ZHAO Jun, JI Rongbin
2022, 44(8): 828-836.  
Abstract HTML(1) PDF(10)
Abstract:
HgCdTe has dominated the high-performance IR detector market for decades. Owing to its numerous merits, including precise energy band structure control and device structure growth, the MBE(molecular beam epitaxy) growth of HgCdTe has become the main tool for fabricating third-generation IR focal plane arrays. CdZnTe is widely considered to be an ideal substrate for HgCdTe epitaxy because of the matched lattice through Zn fraction adjustment. Therefore, HgCdTe/CdZnTe has a high crystal quality with a typical etch pit density in the range of 1×104–1×105 cm-2. However, several limitations, such as high cost, small wafer size, and low yield, still exist in the (211) CdZnTe substrate, which results in high cost and limits the array format size in infrared detectors based on HgCdTe/CdZnTe. Compared with CdZnTe substrates, alternative substrates (e.g., Si, Ge, GaAs, and GaSb) have large wafer size, low cost, and convenience in standard semiconductor equipment, which have the potential to fabricate low-cost high-performance focal plane arrays. The main issue in HgCdTe on alternative substrates is the large lattice mismatch between the substrate and epi-layer (19.3%, 14.3%, 14.4%, and 6.1% for Si, Ge, GaAs, and GaSb, respectively), which is responsible for the high dislocation density of 106–107 cm-2 in HgCdTe films. The high dislocation density hampers the application of this material to long-wavelength and very long-wavelength infrared detectors.The variation in dislocation density with film thickness in the as-grown HgCdTe film grown on an alternative substrate was modeled, and the results from the ρ~1/h law agreed well with the experimental data. This indicates that the dislocation annihilation radius is the leading cause of impeding the dislocation density below 5×106 cm-2 in HgCdTe; thus, dislocation reduction is urgently needed. Moreover, the theory and research progress on three dislocation reduction methods, namely thermal cycle annealing (TCA), dislocation blocking, and mesa dislocation gettering (MDG), are summarized in this paper. Prospects and priorities for future development are also discussed. Overall, TCA and dislocation blocking techniques are likely to be harder in technical breakthroughs and have less development potential in dislocation reduction to below 5× 105 cm-2. By contrast, the MDG technique has shown tremendous development potential and high value in low-cost long-wavelength infrared detectors; however, process integration between the MDG technique and standard focal plane array fabrication is needed.
Systems & Designs
Design and Performance Analysis of Focusing and Image Motion Compensation Mechanism for Low Light Level Multispectral Imager
CAO Yehao, HE Yukun, SHAN Bowen, PENG Yueyang, XIN Hongwei, CHEN Changzheng
2022, 44(8): 837-845.  
Abstract HTML(2) PDF(4)
Abstract:
According to the structural characteristics and working conditions of a low light level multispectral imager, an integrated device of focusing and image motion compensation is designed to be smaller, better imaging quality and low illumination imaging. The focusing function is realized by the screw nut and the wedge slider. The realization of the motion compensation function depends on the voice coil motor, and with the dynamic and static two-stage locking device. The reliability and impact resistance of the mechanism are significantly improved. The overall dimension of the structure is 349 mm×192 mm×174 mm, the focusing range is ±2 mm, the image motion compensation is 3 mm, the focusing resolution is 0.05 μm, and the actual positioning accuracy is ±5.7 μm. The first order mode is 225 Hz, which is consistent with the result of finite element simulation. The results of the sine vibration test and random vibration test meet the requirements of the technical indicators. It shows that it has good dynamic stiffness and can effectively avoid the resonance phenomenon. The focusing and image motion compensation mechanism has small size and high structural strength, which meet the working conditions of low light level cameras.
Minimum Resolvable Contrast Testing of Short-wave IR Camera
WANG Yan, JIN Ning, LIU Guoping, SHI Sheng, YANG Guangxu
2022, 44(8): 846-852.  
Abstract HTML(6) PDF(10)
Abstract:
Short-wave infrared (SWIR) cameras have several advantages over medium-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) cameras. Hence, a method for evaluating their performance is crucial for the application and development of electro-optical systems. We suggest a method that can be used to evaluate the performance of an SWIR camera based on the minimum resolvable vontrast(MRC) test. An integrating sphere and five targets with different contrasts were used. The intensity of the radiation source, aliasing, and observation patterns were controlled to evaluate the SWIR camera performance. We applied this method to test the MRC of the SWIR system. Furthermore, a series of field experiments was conducted, and the results were in agreement with the MRC testing data. The uncertainty of the method reached 2.11%, which supports the conclusion that the MRC method can be applied to evaluate and predict the performance of SWIR cameras.
Image Processing & Simulation
Infrared and Visible Image Fusion Based on Latent Low-Rank Representation
SUN Bin, ZHUGE Wuwei, GAO Yunxiang, WANG Zixuan
2022, 44(8): 853-862.  
Abstract HTML(13) PDF(10)
Abstract:
Infrared and visible image fusion is widely used in target tracking, detection, and recognition. To preserve image details and enhance contrast, this study proposed an infrared and visible image fusion method based on latent low-rank representation. The latent low-rank representation was used to decompose the source images into base and significant layers, in which the base layers contained the main content and structure information, and the salient layers contained the local area with relatively concentrated energy. The ratio of low-pass pyramid was also adopted to decompose the base layer into low-frequency and high-frequency layers. The corresponding fusion rules were designed according to the characteristics of the different layers. A sparse representation was used to express the relatively dispersed energy of the low-frequency base, and the rules of the maximum L1 norm and maximum sparse coefficient were weighted averages to retain different significant features. The absolute value of the high-frequency part of the base layer was used to enhance the contrast. Local variance was used for the salient layer to measure significance, and the weighted average was used to highlight the target area with enhanced contrast. Experimental results on the TNO datasets show that the proposed method performed well in both qualitative and quantitative evaluations. The method based on low-rank decomposition can enhance the contrast of the targets and retain rich details in infrared and visible fusion images.
Infrared Image Segmentation Method Based on Fuzzy Clustering with Similarity Thresholding
GUO Feng, ZHENG Lei, GE Huangxu, YAN Biwu, GUO Yifan
2022, 44(8): 863-869.  
Abstract HTML(2) PDF(8)
Abstract:
This paper presents a fuzzy clustering method based on similarity thresholding to detect an overheating fault region from an infrared image of a transmission line. In this method, the original iteration mechanism of fuzzy clustering was improved and a thresholding fuzzy clustering model was built. Thus, a fuzzy member was utilized to measure the neighboring pixels t by conducting cluster analysis on the object region with local neighboring pixels. This ensured similarity during the clustering of the local neighboring pixels into the cluster center. In addition, the maximum similarity thresholding rule was applied to determine the final thresholding using the strategy of thresholding from top to bottom, thus improving the efficiency of the method in obtaining the final region of interest in the infrared image using fuzzy clustering. Finally, experimental results on infrared images of transmission lines show that the good performance of the proposed method and that the proposed method is suitable for fault detection in transmission lines.
Shape Adaptation Low Rank Representation for Thermal Fault Diagnosis of Power Equipments
HUANG Zhihong, HONG Feng, HUANG Wei
2022, 44(8): 870-874.  
Abstract HTML(4) PDF(8)
Abstract:
This work introduces a thermal fault diagnosis method that integrates superpixel segmentation and low-rank representation for diagnosis. The proposed method comprises two main steps. First, an input infrared image is transformed using a principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm, and a superpixel segmentation method is employed for the first principal component (PC). The first PC is divided into non-overlapping homogeneous superpixels. Then, the thermal fault region is detected by employing low-rank representation in a superpixel-by-superpixel manner. Experimental results show that the proposed diagnosis method has a better detection performance than that of current state-of-the-art detectors.
Infrared Image Dehazing Based on Improved Dark Channel Prior
WANG Haoyu, HE Mingshu
2022, 44(8): 875-881.  
Abstract HTML(6) PDF(8)
Abstract:
To improve the effectiveness of infrared image dehazing, an improved dark channel was proposed. First, because the penetration ability of near-infrared light in the sky region is different from that in the non-sky region, and the infrared energy in the sky region is smaller than that in the non-sky region, the region was divided into sky and non-sky regions using the energy difference. Second, the atmospheric light value of the sky region was calculated using the average pixel brightness of the sliding window, the near-infrared wave attenuation was considered for the transmittance, and the atmospheric light value and transmittance of the non-sky region were calculated using the improved dark channel algorithm. Finally, the dehazed image was recovered from the atmospheric light value and transmittance of each region. The experimental results show that the dehazing output of the infrared image was clearer, the image detail information was better, and the evaluation index was better than those of other algorithms.
Infrared Application
Infrared Spectroscopy Combined with Chemometrics to Test Ink Type of Straight Liquid Ballpoint Pen
LIU Xinlei, HAN Danyan, XIAO Qiang, YANG Shangpeng
2022, 44(8): 882-888.  
Abstract HTML(8) PDF(4)
Abstract:
The inspection and identification of writing ink are important in the field of forensic science. A Fourier transform infrared spectrometer was used to test 20 types of direct liquid ball pen ink samples, and chemometrics was used to rapidly test the direct liquid ball pen ink. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum data were standardized, and the spectrum was pre-processed using three methods: automatic baseline correction, peak area normalization, and Savitzky-Golay 5-point smoothing. The optimal value of classification K was determined using the sum of squares error(SSE). The samples were analyzed using K-means clustering, and the clustering results were explained. The principal component analysis method was used to verify the results of K-means clustering. The group mean equality test was used to investigate the contribution of principal component variables to the Fisher discriminant analysis (FDA) model, and the FDA discriminant model of straight liquid ball pen ink was constructed. The results show that all the ink samples were clustered into three categories using K-means clustering. The principal components analysis–Fisher discriminant analysis (PCA–FDA) model achieved 100% prediction and classification of different categories of straight-liquid ball pen inks with an accuracy of 100% after cross-validation. Infrared spectroscopy combined with the PCA–FDA model can be used for rapid and accurate inspection and identification of direct liquid ball pen inks.
Research Development of Infrared Stealth Materials
SHEN Yulian, LI Chunhai, GUO Shaoyun, CHEN Rong
2021, 43(4): 312-323.  
[Abstract](603) [FullText HTML](218) [PDF 1128KB](226)
摘要:
随着红外探测技术的迅速发展,如何提高军事目标的红外隐身能力成为一个亟待解决的难题,研究红外隐身材料有着十分重要的意义。本文简要分析了红外隐身材料的隐身机理,综述了低红外发射率材料、控温材料、光子晶体以及智能红外隐身材料等4类红外隐身材料近年来的研究现状,并展望了红外隐身材料未来的发展趋势。
Present State and Perspectives of Small Infrared Targets Detection Technology
HOU Wang, SUN Xiao-liang, SHANG Yang, YU Qi-feng
2015, 37(1): 1-10.  
[Abstract](509) [PDF 2162KB](81)
摘要:
在一些关键的军事和民用红外成像应用领域,待突破的技术瓶颈往往都集中在红外弱小目标检测技术上.简介了红外弱小目标检测的含义和在军事、民用方面的意义,重点综述了目前红外弱小目标检测的各类典型算法原理和特点,最后对红外弱小目标检测技术的研究和发展趋势进行了预测.
Uncooled Infrared FPA--A Review and Forecast
FENG Tao, JIN Wei-qi, SI Jun-jie
2015, (3): 177-184.  
[Abstract](826) [PDF 1085KB](59)
摘要:
非制冷红外焦平面探测器是热成像系统的核心部件。介绍了非制冷红外焦平面探测器的工作原理及微测辐射热计、读出电路、真空封装三大技术模块,分析了影响其性能的关键参数。与微测辐射热计设计相关的重要参数包括低的热导、高的红外吸收率、合适的热敏材料等;读出电路的传统功能是实现信号的转换读出,近年来也逐渐加入了信号补偿的功能;真空封装技术包括了金属管壳封装、陶瓷管壳封装、晶圆级封装和像元级封装。列举了国内外主要厂商的非制冷红外焦平面探测器的技术指标及近年来的最新技术进展,总结了非制冷红外焦平面探测器的技术发展趋势。
Research on Influence Factors for Measuring and Method of Correction in Infrared Thermometer
LIAO Panpan, ZHANG Jiamin
2017, 39(2): 173-177.  
[Abstract](252) [PDF 1228KB](38)
摘要:
为了减少红外测温仪的测量误差,提高红外测温仪的测温精度,分析了距离、发射率和外界环境温度等因素对红外测温仪测温的影响;建立了红外测温实验系统采集测温数据,并对采集到的实验数据进行了分析验证,通过分析验证可得距离因素对红外辐射测温精度有较大的影响,并且存在一定的关系,从而为提高红外测温精度的提供了依据;设计了一套提高红外测温仪测量精度的系统,该系统能够测出被测物与红外测温仪之间的距离,根据测出的结果得到距离补偿公式,然后依据公式得出温度的距离补偿,从而得到物体的实际温度.最后分析可得,红外测温仪的测量精度能够大幅提高.
Infrared Thermography NDT and Its Development
ZHENG Kai, JIANG Haijun, CHEN Li
2018, 40(5): 401-411.  
[Abstract](218) [PDF 1575KB](23)
摘要:
红外热波成像是近年来发展较快的一种新型无损检测技术,它是一门跨学科、跨应用领域的通用型实用技术,其三大核心技术包括热激励、红外图像采集及红外图像处理.本文对热激励技术中的闪光灯、激光、卤素灯、红外灯、超声、电磁等几种主要热激励方法的特点及研究现状进行了介绍与对比,分析了采集技术中的制冷与非制冷热像仪各自特点,并对红外图像处理技术中的降噪、增强、序列热图处理及缺陷提取等四大研究方向进行了总结,介绍了相应发展状况和进展.最后总结了该技术的发展趋势.
Developments of High Performance Short-wave Infrared InGaAs Focal Plane Detectors
SHAO Xiumei, GONG Haimei, LI Xue, FANG Jiaxiong, TANG Hengjing, LI Tao, HUANG Songlei, HUANG Zhangchen
2016, 38(8): 629-635.  
[Abstract](356) [PDF 900KB](30)
摘要:
中科院上海技物所近十年来开展了高性能短波红外 InGaAs 焦平面探测器的研究。0.9~1.7?m近红外 InGaAs 焦平面探测器已实现了256×1、512×1、1024×1等多种线列规格,以及320×256、640×512、4000×128等面阵,室温暗电流密度<5 nA/cm2,室温峰值探测率优于5×1012 cm?Hz1/2/W。同时,开展了向可见波段拓展的320×256焦平面探测器研究,光谱范围0.5~1.7?m,在0.8?m 的量子效率约20%,在1.0?m 的量子效率约45%。针对高光谱应用需求,上海技物所开展了1.0~2.5?m 短波红外 InGaAs 探测器研究,暗电流密度小于10 nA/cm2@200 K,形成了512×256、1024×128等多规格探测器,峰值量子效率高于75%,峰值探测率优于5×1011 cm?Hz1/2/W。
Read Out Integrated Circuit for Third-Generation Infrared Focal Plane Detector
BAI Pi-ji, YAO Li-bin
2015, (2): 89-96.  
[Abstract](703) [PDF 738KB](56)
摘要:
对红外探测器不断增长和提高的需求催生了第三代红外焦平面探测器技术。根据第三代红外探测器的概念,像素达到百万级,热灵敏度NETD达到1 mK量级是第三代制冷型高性能红外焦平面探测器的基本特征。计算结果表明读出电路需要达到1000 Me-以上的电荷处理能力和100 dB左右的动态范围(Dynamic Range)才能满足上述第三代红外焦平面探测器需求。提出在像素内进行数字积分技术,以期突破传统模拟读出电路的电荷存储量和动态范围瓶颈限制,使高空间分辨率、高温度分辨率及高帧频的第三代高性能制冷型红外焦平面探测器得到实现。
Infrared Image Detail Enhancement Algorithm Based on Hierarchical Processing by Guided Image Filter
GE Peng, YANG Bo, HAN Qinglin, LIU Peng, CHEN Shugang, HU Douming, ZHANG Qiaoyan
2018, 40(12): 1161-1169.  
[Abstract](154) [PDF 2514KB](25)
摘要:
为了解决高动态红外图像在常规显示设备上显示时容易出现图像整体对比度低、弱小目标细节模糊等问题,提出了一种基于引导滤波图像分层的红外图像细节增强算法,并从算法理论分析和仿真结果两方面验证了引导滤波具有更好的边缘保持能力,能有效避免增强后出现"伪边缘"的缺陷.另外,针对原始全局的引导滤波算法对整幅图像各个区域使用相同的规整化因子,容易产生"光晕"现象的缺陷,本文在局部方差加权引导滤波算法的思想上,提出了基于LoG边缘算子的加权引导滤波算法.实验结果表明本文算法具有良好的细节增强效果,特别是对图像中的弱小目标;另外,相比目前应用广泛的双边滤波算法,本文算法运行时间要快得多,具有实时处理的应用前景.
Infrared Image Denoising Method Based on Improved Non-local Means Filter
GUO Chenlong, ZHAO Xuyang, ZHENG Haiyan, LIANG Xining
2018, 40(7): 638-641.  
[Abstract](79) [PDF 982KB](12)
摘要:
提出了一种基于梯度信息的结构相似性算法改进的红外图像非局部均值滤波方法.传统的非局部均值滤波算法采用欧氏距离度量图像块之间的相似性,因而不能够很好地衡量图像细节和边缘信息,导致滤波后图像模糊失真.针对此问题,采用结构相似性度量(structural similarity,SSIM)算法对欧氏距离进行加权改进,针对普通的SSIM边缘信息评价能力的不足,提出了带有梯度信息的GSSIM算法,实验结果表明本方法在保持非局部均值(Non-Local Means,NLM)滤波算法去噪能力的同时还能够较好地保持图像的边缘和细节信息.
Military Application of UAV Reconnaissance Target Localization
YANG Shuai, CHENG Hong, LI Ting, SUN Wenbang
2016, 38(6): 467-471.  
[Abstract](368) [PDF 579KB](47)
摘要:
无人机能够通过多种方法定位出目标的精确位置信息,以便实施战场指挥或军事打击。主要整理并分类介绍了无人机侦察图像目标定位的各种技术原理,解析了其在军事领域的应用范围;并以无人机飞行任务为模型,完整详细地用空间量算的无人机侦察图像目标定位技术对无人机实际飞行进行航迹规划的运用,证明了无人机侦察图像目标定位技术的重要军事价值。
Research Progress and Application of Polarization Imaging Technology
ZHOU Qiangguo, HUANG Zhiming, ZHOU Wei
2021, 43(9): 817-828.  
[Abstract](1059) [FullText HTML](221) [PDF 1293KB](221)
Abstract:
The advantage of polarization imaging technology is that it expands the amount of information from three degrees of freedom, namely light intensity, spectrum, and space, to seven degrees of freedom, including light intensity, spectrum, space, degree of polarization, polarization azimuth, polarization ellipticity, and direction of rotation. This richness of observational information is conducive to improving the accuracy of research target detection. This article first introduces the research progress of polarization imaging technology at home and abroad in recent decades, then introduces the typical applications of polarization technology in military and civilian fields, and finally provides reasonable suggestions on the problems of polarization imaging technology in our country.
Review of Infrared Image Edge Detection Algorithms
HE Qian, LIU Boyun
2021, 43(3): 199-207.  
[Abstract](573) [FullText HTML](373) [PDF 758KB](373)
Abstract:
To ensure that researchers are well-informed regarding infrared image edge detection algorithms and to provide a valuable reference for follow-up investigations, we review relevant research conducted on infrared image edge detection algorithms in the past ten years. First, infrared imaging and edge detection technology are summarized, and then, the difficulties and challenges of infrared image edge detection algorithms are described. Finally, the main infrared image edge detection algorithms are summarized, and the related algorithms are divided into four categories: improved classic edge detection operator-based algorithms, ant colony algorithm-based algorithms, mathematical morphology-based algorithms, and network model-based algorithms. Considering traditional infrared image edge detection algorithms, the morphological method has potential because of its simplicity and ease of use; for non-traditional infrared image edge detection algorithms, the method based on deep learning has stronger pertinence, better robustness, and no requirement of designing complex algorithm steps, which brings new development opportunities to infrared image edge detection.

Logging system login prompt

Users on or after January 1, 2021, please select this region to log in to the system

Users on or before December 31, 2020, please select this area to log in to the system

Monthly, Established 1979

Competent Authorities:China North Industries Group Corporation

Sponsored by:Kunming Institute of Physics
China Ordnance Society, Speciality

ISSN:1001-8891

CN:53-1054/TN

Postal distribution code:64-26

Editorial Office:No.31 Jiao Chang Dong Road, Kunming, 650223, China

Tel:0871-65105248

E-mail:irtek@china.com

Infrared technology is one of the earliest photoelectronic journals in China.Infrared Technology is published by Science Press, and it is a single monthly technical journal.

Infrared Technology is a professional and academic journal based on scientific research, which comprehensively reflects the research progress of infrared technology at home and abroad and its application in national defense, industry, agriculture and national economy.After years of efforts, INFRARED Technology has become the core journal of Chinese, The core journal of Chinese science and technology, and the source journal of Chinese Science citation database.


MORE>
Download Center
MORE+