Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
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Survey & Review
Remote Raman Spectroscopy in Natural Environments
GUO Yixin, JIN Weiqi, HE Yuqing, ZHAO Man
2022, 44(6): 543-559.  
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Remote Raman spectroscopy is used primarily for on-site rapid detection of dangerous goods, contraband, and deteriorated food from a safe distance. Early applications of remote Raman spectroscopy used visible or near-infrared lasers to excite the Raman spectrum. Such experiments were often conducted in the laboratory or at night, to avoid the influence of environmental light. Recently, solar-blind ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy has been widely used because of its advantages compared to visible or near-infrared approaches. Their advantages include a strong resonance effect, lack of interference from ambient light, and relative safety for the human eye. This study reviews the development of remote visible or near-infrared and ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy based on the analysis of the basic principles in natural environments. The advantages of remote ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy in the fields of anti-terrorism, drug control, and food safety are highlighted. The current challenges and development trends in remote Raman spectroscopy in natural environments are summarized.
Materials & Devices
Position-Dependent Conductivity Transition by Intrinsic Defects in Cd1-xZnxTe Crystal
ZHAO Wen, KONG Jincheng, JIANG Jun, ZHAO Zenglin, CHEN Shaofan, SONG Linwei, YU Jianyun, CHEN Shan, TUO Menghan, LI Jun, HE Zheng, JI Rongbin
2022, 44(6): 560-564.  
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In this study, the formation of a position-dependent conductivity transition in Cd1-xZnxTe crystals is investigated. The results indicate that the transition from p- to n-type Cd1-xZnxTe (x = 0.04) can be ascribed to the formation of the VCd-Cdi interface. Cd vacancies (VCd) are easily generated in the Te-rich condition crystal growth process and are responsible for the p-type conductivity. However, Cd vacancies are filled and the n-type defect, Cd interstitial (Cdi), form in the Cd-rich condition. This leads to the transition from p-type to n-type conductivity during the growth of Cd1-xZnxTe (x = 0.04).
Image Processing & Simulation
Infrared Image Defect Information Extraction Based on Temporal Information
WANG Dongsheng, WANG Hailong, ZHANG Fang, HAN Linfang, ZHAO Yilin
2022, 44(6): 565-570.  
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In active infrared thermography technology, the extraction of defect information from infrared images is crucial. Traditional image processing methods can eliminate noise and improve image contrast, but several challenges remain, such as selecting the infrared image manually, subjectivity in the process of infrared image enhancement and segmentation, and information loss in the process of a single infrared image. To overcome these challenges, this study proposes a method for extracting defect information from infrared images based on time sequence information. First, concrete blocks with delamination are fabricated by indoor experiments. Then, active infrared thermal image detection technology is used to collect the infrared image data and temporal information is extracted for each pixel. Finally, the K-means method is used for defect feature extraction based on temporal information. The results show that the defect extraction method based on temporal information can extract hidden defect information. Furthermore, its hierarchical defect information extraction effect is better than that of the K-means method based on the spatial domain.
Multi-Feature Adaptive Fusion Method for Infrared and Visible Images
WANG Junyao, WANG Zhishe, WU Yuanyuan, CHEN Yanlin, SHAO Wenyu
2022, 44(6): 571-579.  
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Owing to different imaging mechanisms, infrared images represent typical targets by pixel distribution, whereas visible images describe texture details through edges and gradients. Existing fusion methods fail to adaptively change according to the characteristics of the source images, thereby resulting in fusion results that do not retain infrared target features and visible texture details simultaneously. Therefore, a multi-feature adaptive fusion method for infrared and visible images is proposed in this study. First, a multi-scale dense connection network that can effectively reuse all intermediate features of different scales and levels, and further enhance the ability of feature extraction and reconstruction is constructed. Second, a multi-feature adaptive loss function is designed. Using the pixel intensity and gradient as measurement criteria, the multi-scale features of the source image are extracted by the VGG-16 network and the feature weight coefficients are calculated by the degree of information preservation. The multi-feature adaptive loss function can supervise network training and evenly extract the respective feature information of the source image to obtain a better fusion effect. The experimental results of public datasets demonstrate that the proposed method is superior to other typical methods in terms of subjective and objective evaluations.
Infrared Image Mosaic Method for Improving the Best Seam-line
LU Quan, YANG Zhenhua, HUANG Lifeng
2022, 44(6): 580-586.  
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The infrared image of a substation is significantly disturbed by noise and the texture information is unclear. Therefore, stitching traces or the ghosting phenomenon may appear in the process of stitching. To overcome these challenges, this study proposes an infrared image splicing method that improves the best seam-line. First, this method uses the SIFT algorithm to extract the image area features to achieve image registration, then introduces local weight coefficients in the overlapping area of the two images. Subsequently, morphological operations are performed on the intensity of the image color difference, which reduces the noise interference of the infrared image and improves the texture information of the energy function graph. Finally, dynamic programming is used to improve the seam-line search criteria and search for the best seam-line in the image overlapping area. The experimental results show that compared with the gradual fusion method and the best seam-line method, the average gradient, image clarity and image edge strength of the stitched image are improved, the transition of the fusion region is smoother and more natural, and the stitching trace is significantly reduced.
Implementation of a Histogram Equalization Algorithm Based on Image Segmentation
ZHU Jiayi, YANG Hongshuang, HE Wei, WANG Weinan, SHA Yizhong, HUANG Xiaojiang, XU Zhenjie
2022, 44(6): 587-592.  
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Original infrared images have a low contrast and high dynamic range, with the dynamic range varying between scenes. To obtain better images, it is necessary to transform the original infrared image data. Aiming to overcome the deficiency of the global histogram equalization algorithm, this study proposes a histogram equalization method based on region segmentation. By dividing the image into several regions, each region is histogram balanced; subsequently, pixels are reconstructed by linear interpolation. This effectively improves the image quality of the infrared thermal imaging system, greatly enhancing the contrast and image detail information. The algorithm is simple to implement in an FPGA and positive results are obtained.
Blind Pixel Compensation Algorithm Based on Dual-Band Infrared Images
LI Qian, ZHAO Canbing, LIU Xing, SU Junbo, HONG Wenqing, SU Lan, FAN Peiqi, ZHANG Runqi
2022, 44(6): 593-597.  
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Blind pixels often appear in infrared focal plane arrays owing to the influence of the manufacturing technology. The previously used single-band blind element compensation algorithm is not satisfactory for large blind clusters and blind pixels at edge positions. With the rise in double-band thermal images, a blind element compensation algorithm based on double-band information is proposed in this study. This algorithm combines the information from the two bands. Different strategies are used to compensate for the blind pixels in the image, according to the similarity of the neighborhood information of the two bands. This can effectively compensate for the large blind clusters in the image and the blind pixels at the edge using different strategies.
Infrared and Visible Image Fusion Based on a Rolling Guidance Filter
ZHANG Hui, HAN Xinning, HAN Huili
2022, 44(6): 598-603.  
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The fusion image must be made more suitable for human visual perception and the problem of a poor fusion effect caused by light and weather must be solved. Therefore, this study proposes a fusion method of visible and infrared images based on a rolling guidance filter. First, guided filtering is used to enhance the content of the visible image. Then, a rolling guidance filter is used to decompose the visible and infrared images into small-scale, large-scale, and base layers. In the process of information synthesis of large-scale layers, the weighted least square fusion rule is used to solve the problem caused by different features of visible and infrared images, and to improve the visual effect of fusion images. In the process of fusion of the base layer, the optimized fusion rule of the visual saliency map is used to reduce the loss of contrast. Finally, the large-scale, small-scale, and base layers are merged into a fused image. The experimental results show that the proposed method improves the visual effect, detail processing, and edge protection.
Guidance & Countermeasure
Temperature Field of a Falling Film with Constant Heat Flux Boundary Conditions and Its Influence on the Infrared Detection Range
LI Dongzhen, DU Yongcheng, PENG Youshun, YANG Li
2022, 44(6): 604-608.  
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A falling liquid film (FLM) method for suppressing the vertical infrared of military targets under constant heat flux boundary conditions is analyzed in detail. A flow and heat transfer model of a laminar falling film is established. The temperature distribution on the falling film surface is obtained using the energy conservation method and omitting the liquid film inlet effect, which simplifies the solution process. By comparing the results of different studies, the effectiveness of the energy conservation method for evaluating the heat transfer process of a falling film in a fully developed section is verified. The recognition distance of the detector to the target is calculated using liquid film infrared suppression technology. The results show that increasing the flow rate and sufficiently controlling the inlet temperature of the liquid film enhances the infrared suppression effect on a specific target. The research methods and conclusions of this study have important applications in providing a point of reference for infrared suppression of military targets.
Infrared Seeker Refrigeration Gas Supply Test System
REN Chunjie, FEI Fan, BIN Ling, LU Meng
2022, 44(6): 609-613.  
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An infrared seeker refrigeration gas supply test system is used to determine the cooling time of an infrared seeker in a weapon system to verify the cooling effect of high-pressure. This study introduces the composition and structural design of the system by primarily using high-pressure argon as the refrigeration gas source. Argon controls and simulates the actual working temperature of the seeker through a high- and low-temperature test system, thereby controlling the cooling time, pressure, temperature test, and imaging display through the data acquisition system. To overcome common problems of systems in engineering applications, structural improvement schemes are proposed. Through several years of production and application, it is verified that the system can meet the requirements of batch testing for infrared seekers in weapon systems.
Systems & Designs
Integrated Opto-mechanical-thermal Analysis and Optimization Design of a Low-Orbit Remote Sensing Camera
LIU Pengpeng, JIN Lifeng, ZHAO Hui, LI Tuotuo
2022, 44(6): 614-621.  
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The complex and harsh thermal environment of low-orbit satellites necessitates strict requirements for the performance of the optical-mechanical structure of remote sensing cameras. In this study, an integrated opto-mechanical-thermal simulation analysis method based on an on-orbit temperature field is proposed by using a low-orbit satellite camera as an example. Thermal desktop, MSC Patran/Nastran, and Code V are used to construct the thermal, structural finite element, and optical analysis models, respectively. The structural deformation characteristics, including the shift, tilt, and distance of each mirror in the most extreme conditions of single camera imaging time, are obtained. Changes in the MTF of the optical system are analyzed and the primary influencing factors of the system transfer function are determined. Subsequently, optimization design is performed based on the structural parameters of the primary force-taking structure. The optimization results show that the thermal characteristics of the system are optimal when the linear expansion coefficient of the primary force-taking structure ranges from 5.0e-6 to 5.5e-6, and the system transfer function meets the target requirements.
Static Centroid Balancing for Missile Borne Infrared Cameras
ZHANG Shengquan, ZHAO Jinsong, HE Hongxing, LUO Min, KANG Lizhu, TAO Liang, XU Canjun, XU Rui
2022, 44(6): 622-627.  
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In order to realize the static centroid balancing of missile borne infrared cameras, a set of counterweight load combination with less quantity, light weight, fine technology and interchangeability is designed under requirements of the whole machine quality. In order to design the counterweight load quickly and efficiently and arrange the installation position of the load combination reasonably for the missile borne infrared camera with small space volume, a method is proposed to simulate the centroid position of the original prototype by using the three-dimensional design software Creo4.0, and then calculate the coupling relationship between the mass of the counterweight load and the centroid position by using the torque balance principle at two points of the space. On the basis of summarizing the design principles of counterweight load, the counterweight load scheme is designed by using creo4.0. After projection, processing, assembly and strict centroid test, the results show that the method can achieve the centroid balancing function well, and make the missile borne infrared camera meet the centroid requirements. Compared with the trial method, this static centroid balancing method has obvious advantages of high efficiency and reasonable layout.
Research and Improvement on Reliability Growth of a Type of Infrared Thermal Imager
WANG Qiyi, XIA Likun, ZENG Bangze, ZHAO Deli, ZHU Youpan, CHEN Ruotong, LI Guang, WANG Ruonan
2022, 44(6): 628-634.  
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The reliability of thermal imagery has direct impact on the success rate of user tasks, maintenance costs and life cycle, so its reliability design is increasingly concerned. At the same time, as far as the development of thermal imagery in China is concerned, the reliability of the developed prototype does not reflect the reliability level of the products produced in small batches. Therefore, in order to fully reflect the reliability level of the developed prototype, this paper develops a method for certain infrared thermal imager that analyzes the feature of reliability growth in the development stage. We analyze the faults of the infrared thermal imaging camera, establish the mission reliability model of the infrared thermal imaging camera, propose corresponding improvement measures, and adopts the reliability to verify the effectiveness of the proposed measures. This method meets the requirements of equipment test and appraisal, and can achieve the goal of increasing the reliability of thermal imaging cameras and not reducing the reliability of batch products.
Nondestructive Testing
Quantitative Identification and Comparative Study of Defects Based on Phase and Surface Temperatures
CHEN Lin, LI Minqian, GAO Feng, LIU Min, ZHANG Chi
2022, 44(6): 635-640.  
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To improve the accuracy of infrared detection and realize synchronous detection of defect depth and size, a conjugate gradient recognition algorithm is integrated with pulsed thermography and pulsed phase thermography. Quantitative identification of infrared technology is achieved based on the phase and surface temperatures. The influence of these factors on the identification result is analyzed using numerical examples. The results show that without temperature errors, the defect is accurately identified based on the phase and surface temperature. The random temperature error decreases the accuracy of the identification result based on the phase and surface temperature. The uniform temperature error decreases the accuracy of the identification result based on the surface temperature. However, the uniform temperature measurement error does not affect the identification result based on the phase.
Research Development of Infrared Stealth Materials
SHEN Yulian, LI Chunhai, GUO Shaoyun, CHEN Rong
2021, 43(4): 312-323.  
[Abstract](549) [FullText HTML](185) [PDF 1128KB](199)
Present State and Perspectives of Small Infrared Targets Detection Technology
HOU Wang, SUN Xiao-liang, SHANG Yang, YU Qi-feng
2015, 37(1): 1-10.  
[Abstract](460) [PDF 2162KB](70)
Uncooled Infrared FPA--A Review and Forecast
FENG Tao, JIN Wei-qi, SI Jun-jie
2015, (3): 177-184.  
[Abstract](773) [PDF 1085KB](48)
Research on Influence Factors for Measuring and Method of Correction in Infrared Thermometer
LIAO Panpan, ZHANG Jiamin
2017, 39(2): 173-177.  
[Abstract](218) [PDF 1228KB](29)
Infrared Thermography NDT and Its Development
2018, 40(5): 401-411.  
[Abstract](205) [PDF 1575KB](21)
Read Out Integrated Circuit for Third-Generation Infrared Focal Plane Detector
BAI Pi-ji, YAO Li-bin
2015, (2): 89-96.  
[Abstract](671) [PDF 738KB](46)
对红外探测器不断增长和提高的需求催生了第三代红外焦平面探测器技术。根据第三代红外探测器的概念,像素达到百万级,热灵敏度NETD达到1 mK量级是第三代制冷型高性能红外焦平面探测器的基本特征。计算结果表明读出电路需要达到1000 Me-以上的电荷处理能力和100 dB左右的动态范围(Dynamic Range)才能满足上述第三代红外焦平面探测器需求。提出在像素内进行数字积分技术,以期突破传统模拟读出电路的电荷存储量和动态范围瓶颈限制,使高空间分辨率、高温度分辨率及高帧频的第三代高性能制冷型红外焦平面探测器得到实现。
Developments of High Performance Short-wave Infrared InGaAs Focal Plane Detectors
SHAO Xiumei, GONG Haimei, LI Xue, FANG Jiaxiong, TANG Hengjing, LI Tao, HUANG Songlei, HUANG Zhangchen
2016, 38(8): 629-635.  
[Abstract](326) [PDF 900KB](24)
中科院上海技物所近十年来开展了高性能短波红外 InGaAs 焦平面探测器的研究。0.9~1.7?m近红外 InGaAs 焦平面探测器已实现了256×1、512×1、1024×1等多种线列规格,以及320×256、640×512、4000×128等面阵,室温暗电流密度<5 nA/cm2,室温峰值探测率优于5×1012 cm?Hz1/2/W。同时,开展了向可见波段拓展的320×256焦平面探测器研究,光谱范围0.5~1.7?m,在0.8?m 的量子效率约20%,在1.0?m 的量子效率约45%。针对高光谱应用需求,上海技物所开展了1.0~2.5?m 短波红外 InGaAs 探测器研究,暗电流密度小于10 nA/cm2@200 K,形成了512×256、1024×128等多规格探测器,峰值量子效率高于75%,峰值探测率优于5×1011 cm?Hz1/2/W。
Infrared Image Detail Enhancement Algorithm Based on Hierarchical Processing by Guided Image Filter
GE Peng, YANG Bo, HAN Qinglin, LIU Peng, CHEN Shugang, HU Douming, ZHANG Qiaoyan
2018, 40(12): 1161-1169.  
[Abstract](133) [PDF 2514KB](21)
Military Application of UAV Reconnaissance Target Localization
YANG Shuai, CHENG Hong, LI Ting, SUN Wenbang
2016, 38(6): 467-471.  
[Abstract](333) [PDF 579KB](37)
The Research Review of the Infrared Imaging Technology in the Field of Traditional Chinese Medicine
WANG Yuting, DENG Pin, LI Hongjuan
2017, 39(1): 14-21.  
[Abstract](107) [PDF 627KB](15)
Research Progress and Application of Polarization Imaging Technology
ZHOU Qiangguo, HUANG Zhiming, ZHOU Wei
2021, 43(9): 817-828.  
[Abstract](771) [FullText HTML](171) [PDF 1293KB](171)
The advantage of polarization imaging technology is that it expands the amount of information from three degrees of freedom, namely light intensity, spectrum, and space, to seven degrees of freedom, including light intensity, spectrum, space, degree of polarization, polarization azimuth, polarization ellipticity, and direction of rotation. This richness of observational information is conducive to improving the accuracy of research target detection. This article first introduces the research progress of polarization imaging technology at home and abroad in recent decades, then introduces the typical applications of polarization technology in military and civilian fields, and finally provides reasonable suggestions on the problems of polarization imaging technology in our country.
Review of Infrared Image Edge Detection Algorithms
HE Qian, LIU Boyun
2021, 43(3): 199-207.  
[Abstract](528) [FullText HTML](360) [PDF 758KB](360)
To ensure that researchers are well-informed regarding infrared image edge detection algorithms and to provide a valuable reference for follow-up investigations, we review relevant research conducted on infrared image edge detection algorithms in the past ten years. First, infrared imaging and edge detection technology are summarized, and then, the difficulties and challenges of infrared image edge detection algorithms are described. Finally, the main infrared image edge detection algorithms are summarized, and the related algorithms are divided into four categories: improved classic edge detection operator-based algorithms, ant colony algorithm-based algorithms, mathematical morphology-based algorithms, and network model-based algorithms. Considering traditional infrared image edge detection algorithms, the morphological method has potential because of its simplicity and ease of use; for non-traditional infrared image edge detection algorithms, the method based on deep learning has stronger pertinence, better robustness, and no requirement of designing complex algorithm steps, which brings new development opportunities to infrared image edge detection.

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Monthly, Established 1979

Competent Authorities:China North Industries Group Corporation

Sponsored by:Kunming Institute of Physics
China Ordnance Society, Speciality



Postal distribution code:64-26

Editorial Office:No.31 Jiao Chang Dong Road, Kunming, 650223, China


Infrared technology is one of the earliest photoelectronic journals in China.Infrared Technology is published by Science Press, and it is a single monthly technical journal.

Infrared Technology is a professional and academic journal based on scientific research, which comprehensively reflects the research progress of infrared technology at home and abroad and its application in national defense, industry, agriculture and national economy.After years of efforts, INFRARED Technology has become the core journal of Chinese, The core journal of Chinese science and technology, and the source journal of Chinese Science citation database.

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